Accessibility Tools
Celiac Disease

What is Celiac Disease?

Celiac disease is a condition characterized by inflammation of the lining of the small intestine due to an autoimmune reaction (body’s immune system mistakenly attacks own healthy tissues) against gluten, a protein found in foods such as oats, wheat, rye, and barley. Intake of such foods may lead to gastrointestinal and malabsorptive problems.

Anatomy of Small Intestine

The small intestine of the human body consists of numerous small finger-like projections called villi, which line its inner wall. These villi provide a larger surface area for food to digest and absorb into the body. In patients with celiac disease, these villi become inflamed and flatten due to the autoimmune reaction, thereby reducing the surface area for the absorption of nutrients.

Causes of Celiac Disease 

Celiac disease occurs when your body’s immune systems mistake gluten, a protein found in many foods, as a threat to the body and causes an inflammatory reaction in the small intestine. The cause of this autoimmune reaction is not very clear. A familial history and underlying conditions, such as type 1 diabetes and ulcerative colitis, increase your risk of developing celiac disease.

Impact of Celiac Disease

The celiac disease usually causes an inflammatory reaction that leads to various gastrointestinal and malabsorptive problems. The condition may sometimes be associated with dermatitis herpetiformis, an itchy skin rash.

Symptoms of Celiac Disease

The various symptoms of celiac diseases include:

  • Bloating and flatulence
  • Weight loss
  • Stomach pain
  • Anemia due to iron deficiency
  • Numbness or tingling sensation in your hands and feet
  • Fatigue and tiredness
  • Swelling due to accumulation of fluid in the body
  • Vomiting in children

Diagnosis of Celiac Disease

Celiac disease should be diagnosed at an early stage to avoid major health problems. Celiac disease can be diagnosed with the help of

  • Blood Tests: This test is used to measure the number of antibodies released against gluten in your blood. Blood tests may also be ordered to detect anemia, levels of iron, vitamins, protein, etc.
  • Bowel Biopsy: A small amount of bowel tissue is removed to examine the presence of any inflammation or flattening or damage.
  • Gene Testing: This test can be used to confirm a diagnosis if the blood tests or biopsy is unclear. Genes causing celiac disease are identified with the help of a small blood sample or a buccal scrub.
  • Bone Density Test: This test helps determine bone damage due to poor absorption of vitamin D and calcium by the intestine.

While undergoing these tests, you will be advised not to discontinue gluten intake in order to obtain appropriate results.


If celiac disease is left untreated for a long time, it may lead to several associated conditions such as poor nutrition due to mal-absorption of nutrients, and complications in other parts of the body such as skin, joints, liver, pancreas, thyroid gland, nervous system, and reproductive tract. The severe reaction of your immune system to gluten intake may lead to a condition called dermatitis herpetiformis, which causes skin rashes on various parts of your body.

Treatment for  Celiac Disease

The foremost treatment for celiac disease is avoiding foods containing gluten. Some of the common foods containing gluten include wheat, barley, and rye used in bread, pasta, pastries, cereals, and cakes. You can substitute with gluten-free substitutes.

In addition to this, you may also be prescribed supplements for calcium, iron, and vitamin for a certain period of time to replenish lost vitamins and minerals while your digestive system is healing. Your doctor may prescribe medications to treat associated conditions such as dermatitis herpetiformis along with diet control.

Sometimes, the celiac disease may hinder the functioning of your spleen, which may make you highly susceptible to infections. To avoid this, your doctor usually administers vaccinations against infectious diseases such as influenza, pneumonia, and meningitis.

With a gluten-free diet, you can live a life free of symptoms of celiac disease. Once diagnosed with celiac disease, you will be closely monitored through regular follow-ups every three to six months initially, to ensure that you are progressing and maintaining a gluten-free diet, also to examine you for the development of osteoporosis (bone thinning).

  • American Board of Internal Medicine
  • American Medical Association
  • American College of Gastroenterology
  • Texas Medical Association
  • Memorial Hermann Foundation
  • HCA Healthcare
  • Methodist Church
  • Howard University College of Medicine
  • American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
  • UT Health San Antonio